Tropical medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with health problems that occur uniquely, are more widespread, or prove more difficult to control in tropical and subtropical regions.
Many infections and infestations that are classified as “tropical diseases” used to be endemic in countries located in temperate or even cold areas. This includes widespread epidemics such as malaria and hookworm infections as well as exceedingly rare diseases like lagochilascaris minor. Many of these diseases have been controlled or even eliminated from developed countries, as a result of improvements in housing, diet, sanitation, and personal hygiene. Since climate is not the main reason why those infections remain endemic in tropical areas, there is a trend towards renaming this specialty as “Geographic Medicine” or “Third World Medicine.”